The paper contains the author's research findings in the field of authentication and preservation of cultural heritage (paintings, historical and religious monuments, textiles and old books). The theme is approached from an interdisciplinary perspective, involving knowledge of conservation and restoration, materials science, history and art theory, biology, chemistry. This paper presents case studies in which modern methods used in the characterization and authentication materials are X-ray fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy SEM, optical microscopy, FTIR, etc. The presentation this information took into account the difficulty encountered by conservators, art historians, restorers or other responsible people in decision making of the dating, conservation and restoration the cultural heritage. The work is of interest to researchers, specialists, teachers, students and for all those passionate about the richness and diversity of cultural heritage.